Workstation cards are the only ones that support 10-bit output to a 10-bit capable display.
As for general computations, such as effects and compositing, there should be no difference. The workstation cards are using the same GPUs as consumer cards. The workstation GPUs are generally packaging jumperd to enable certain special features like 10-bit displays and ECC ram and maybe other features.
10-bit video data computation can be supported via 16-bit integer, 16-bit half float (only just) and 32-bit float computation. Of those Vegas only supports 32-bit float.